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Bibliography / Book List: Bicycling, Sustainable Transport, Land Use, Livability, Traffic Calming, Road Pricing, Facilities Design, Safety Education





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Bicycling / Sustainable Transportation / Land Use Planning & Policy / Traffic Calming / Livability

Advocacy Institute, Citizen Advocacy: Working for Sustainable Transportation Alternatives in Your Community. Advocacy Institute, 1730 Rhode Island Ave., NW, Suite 600, Washington DC 20036. (guidelines and tips for people developing an effective transportation advocacy campaign.)

Alexander, Neis, Anninou, and King, A New Theory of Urban Design. Oxford Press, 1987. (In this brief volume of the multi-part Center for Environmental Structure series, Alexander et. al. put forth seven rules of urban development and test them through graduate student projects.)

American Planning Association, Reinventing the Village: Planning, Zoning and Design Strategies. American Planning Association (1313 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637. Tel.: 312-955-9100). (Describes advantages of a village: a pedestrian environment with mixed use zoning in a small, compact area. Practical information on zoning ordinances, design review, and incentives for developing a village commercial district.)

Appleyard, Donald, Livable Streets. Univ of California Press, 1981. (A classic look at what makes streets places to live rather than simply conduits for motor vehicles.)

Arendt, Randall, Rural by Design: Maintaining Small Town Character. American Planning Association, 1994. (Covers character of towns, alternative scenarios for conservation and development, implementation techniques and case examples.)

Barter, A. Rahman Paul and Tamim Raad, Taking Steps: A Community Action Guide to People-Centred, Equitable and Sustainable Urban Transport, SUSTRAN Network, Malaysia, 2000.  Note: Link is to an email discussion list devoted to people-centered, equitable and sustainable transport with a focus on developing countries

Cairns, Hass-Klau and Goodwin, Traffic Impact of Highway Capacity Reductions: Assessment of the evidence.  Landor Publishing, London, 1998.

Cãmara, P. & Banister, D.  "Spatial inequalities in the provision of public transport in Latin American cities."  Transport Reviews, 1993, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 351-373.

CART; Traffic Calming. CART (Australia); 1989 (distributed in the U.S. by STOP, 15405 SW 16th Ave., #202B, Tigard OR 97224).

CROW (Centre for Research and Contract Standardization in Civil and Traffic Engineering),  Still More Bikes Behind The Dikes!  Record No. 6, CROW (PO Box 37, NL-6710 BA EDE, Netherlands. Tel.:(+) 31 8380-21112). (A review of Dutch policy, practice and research supporting bicycle usage. Some of the papers were presented at the 1991 Velo-city Conference in Milano, some were written for other occasions).

CROW, Cycling In The City: Pedaling In The Ploder. Record No. 9, CROW (PO Box 37, NL-6710 BA EDE, Netherlands. Tel.:(+) 31 8380-21112).(Elaborates and updates version of 19 Dutch papers, on a wide range of topics, presented at Velo Mondiale, including papers on the Netherlands Bicycle Policy and the policy manual for bicycle-friendly infrastructure).

Dafermos, S. and A. Nagurney, "On Some Traffic Equilibrium Theory Paradoxes", Transportation Research-B, Vol.18B(2), pp.101-110, 1984.

Dawson, J and I.J. Barwell, Roads are not Enough: New Perspectives on Rural Transport in Developing Countries.  Intermediate Technology Pub., 1993.

Diamond, Henry and Patrick Noonan, Land Use in America. Island Press, 1996. (Analysis of growth issues and proposals for accommodating growth in more environmentally sound ways.)

Downs, Anthony, New Visions for Metropolitan America. Brookings Institute, 1994. (Proposes three alternative visions that reverse the trend to sprawl.)

Downs, Anthony, Stuck in Traffic: Coping with Peak-Hour Traffic Congestion. Brookings Institute, 1992. (Examines the relationship between land use and travel demand.)

Engwicht; David, Reclaiming Our Cities and Towns: Better Living with Less Traffic. New Society Publishers, 1993. (Engwicht is a founder of CART, the group that successfully fought new highway construction in Australia's Queensland and wrote the book on Traffic Calming.)

Fisk, C. and S. Pallottino, "Empirical Evidence for Equilibrium Paradoxes with Implications for Optimal Planning Strategies", Transportation Research, Vol.15A, pp.245-248, 1981.

Fodor, Eben V., Better Not Bigger: How to Take Control of Urban Growth and Improve Your Community. New Society Pub., 1998.

Franko, Margaret, (ed) ISTEA Planner's Workbook. Surface Transportation Policy Project (1100 17th St NW, 10th Fl., Washington DC 20036. Tel.: 202-466-2636. Email: stpp 1995. (Includes contributions from a variety of organizations, agencies, and firms; good stuff!)

Fujiwara A. and J. Zhang (1995), Evaluating Sustainability of Urban Development in Developing Countries incorporating Dynamic Cause-Effect Relationships over Time, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 4349-4364.

Gas Guzzler Campaign, Getting There: Strategic Fact for the Transportation Advocate. Contact: Gas Guzzler Campaign (310 D St NE, Washington DC 20002 USA.   Tel.: 202-547-9359. Fax: 202-547-9429. Email: .) (Packed with indicator fact for the environment, health, walking, bicycling, public transportation, sprawl and much more.)

Gas Guzzler Campaign, Moving Right Along: Best Practices: Lessons From Transportation and Healthy Communities Advocates. Gas Guzzler Campaign (c/o International Center for Technology Assessment, 310 D St. NE, Washington, DC 20002 USA. Email: icta2 ). (A series of case studies that details how advocates have been effective, and what has not worked so well in their struggle for healthier communities - communities with cleaner, more efficient transportation systems that serve all people equally.)

Goodman, Ron, Bicycle Advocacy Resource Guide. Bicycle Federation of America, 1506 21st St., NW, Suite 200, Washington DC 20036 (202) 463-6622, 1994. (100-page guide lists state and local advocacy groups, and contains articles and resources.)

Harvey, T., "A Review of Current Traffic Calming Techniques". (online review of traffic calming) Leeds Univ., no date.

Heierli, U., Environmental Limits to Motorization: Non-motorized Transport in Developed and Developing Countries. SKAT-Bookshop, (Vadianstr 42, CH-9000 St Gallen, SWITZERLAND. Tel: 41-71-237475), 1993.  (An examination of non-motorized transport as a decisive component in a new strategy for urban development in both developing and developed countries. The book provides useful case studies, tables and many illustrations.)

Howe, John and Ron Dennis, The Bicycle in Africa: Luxury or Necessity?   Working Paper IP-3.  IHE Delft, 1993

Jensen, Soren Underlien, "Collection of Cycle Concepts" Road Directorate, Niels Juels Gade 13, DK-1059 Copenhagen K Denmark, 2000.  (online)

Karp, Adam, "China Must Not "Wait Until the Evening": Resisting Mass Motorization's Assault on Bicycles and Mass Transit," Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal, Vol. 6 No. 3, 1997.

Kay, Jane Holtz, Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile Took Over America and How We Can Take it Back. Crown Pub., 1997. Covers the historical trends that created automobile dependency, the problems that result, and ways to change our transportation system for the better.

Kenworthy, Jeff, and Felix Laube, International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities 1960-1990. Univ. Press of Colorado, 1999. (Contains extensive primary and standardized land use, transportation, energy, economic and environmental data on 46 cities in the USA, Canada, Australia, Europe and Asia, including detailed maps on each city. It also provides a comparative overview analysis of automobile dependence in different types of cities around the world, trends between 1980 and 1990 in key land use and transportation features, as well as some policy implications which impact on how to reduce auto-dependence.)

Kipke, Barbara, (ed.) Bicycle Reference Manual For Developing Countries. (4 vols.) GATE (PO Box 5180, 6236 Eschborn, GERMANY), 1992. (40 papers give a worldwide perspective on bicycling. The manual is be made available through the German development agency GATE to anyone from developing countries interested in bicycle usage.)

Transportation Planning
The African experience
The Asian Experience
The Latin American Experience

Knaup, Sue. "Defying Poverty with Bicycles". One Street Press, 2013. How-to manual for our Social Bike Business program.

Leinbach, T.R.  "Transport and third world development: review, issues, and prescription."  Transportation Research, 1995,  Vol. 29A, No. 5, pp. 337-344.

Leinbach, T.R.  "Mobility in development context: changing perspectives, new interpretations, and the real issues."  Journal of Transport Geography, 2000, Vol. 8, pp. 1-9.

Lowe, Marcia, The Bicycle: Vehicle for a Small Planet, Paper 90.   Worldwatch Institute (1776 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington DC 20036), 1989.   (A condensed overview of international bicycle use and how the bicycle can play an important role in the future of transport.)

Lowe, Marcia, Alternatives to the Automobile: Transport for Liviable Cities, Paper 98.  Worldwatch Institute (1776 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington DC 20036), 1990.

Mathew, Don, More Bikes - Policy into Best Practice. Cyclists' Touring Club, 1995

McClintock, Hugh, Cycle Planning: A Comprehensive Bibliography. (2 vols.) Univ. of Nottingham (Hugh McClintock, Department of Planning, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK, 1996.

Vol 1: United Kingdom Bicycle Planning
Emphasis on cycling facilities and the experience of their planning and implementation in the UK, 800 references, an index and contact addresses
Vol 2: International Bicycle Planning
A list of more than 3000 references to reports, articles and books on cycle planning worldwide. Indexed by topic and place, contact names and address.

Mees, Paul, A Very Public Solution: Transport in the Dispersed City . Melbourne Univ. Press, 1999. Email: marketing, Internet: 

Midgley, Peter, Urban Transport in Asia: An Operational Agenda for the 1990's. The World Bank Technical Paper 224, 1994.

Moore, Terry and Paul Thorsnes, The Transportation / Land Use Connection (report #448/449). American Planning Association (1313 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637. Tel.: 312-955-9100). (Exhaustive look at the linkage between transportation and land use from an Oregon perspective.)

Mozer, David, "The Bicyclist's Dilemma In African Cities". International Bicycle Fund. (Impact on individuals, society & the environment of not accommodating & encouraging bicycle use in African cities.)

Mozer, David, "Transportation, Bicycles And Development In Africa: Progression or Regression". International Bicycle Fund.   (Transportation in Africa is primarily by foot. Is encouraging bicycles progressive or regressive?)

Mozer, David, "Transportation Patterns In Nairobi". International Bicycle Fund. (The history of transport in Nairobi that has led to traffic jams and filthy air. With strategies for encouraging bikes.)

Murchland, J.D., "Braess's Paradox of Traffic Flow", Transportation Research, Vol.4, pp.391-394, 1970.

Nelssen, Anton Clarence, Visions for a New American Dream. American Planning Association , 1994. (Design book dealing with the process, definition and program characteristics, analyzing the past to better plan and design the future; one weakness is the bike-specific advice; has information on visual preference surveys.)

Newman, Peter W. and Jeffrey R. Kenworthy, Cities and Automobile Dependence: An International Sourcebook. Ashgate Pub., 1989. (Survey of major cities around the world; it compares their liveability and dependence on the automobile for personal mobility with fascinating comparisons.)

Noland, Robert B., Relationships between highway capacity and induced vehicle travel. 1998.(EPA report of interest. Be warned that this is not a very easy read, with lots of technical jargon and mathematical models. But the report does support the hypothesis that building more roads causes more traffic.)

Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada, Las Vegas Bicycle Travel Study (pdf), 2002

Richards, Brian, Future Transport in Cities.  Spon Press, UK, 2001.

Riplogle, Michael, Non-motorized Vehicles in Asian Cities. The World Bank Technical Paper 162, 1992

Seattle Dept of Neighborhoods, Traffic Circles in Residential Areas, City of Seattle (Seattle City Treasurer, Municipal Building, Room 708, Seattle, WA 98104. Tel.: 206-684-0813).(Kit with print and video information on Seattle's neighborhood traffic circle program.) Printed material free, $15 for video.

Smith, M.J., "In a Road Network, Increasing Delay Locally Can Reduce Delay Globally", Transportation Research, Vol. 12, pp.419-422, 1978.

Steinberg, R. and W. I. Zangwill, "The Prevalence of Braess' Paradox", Transportation Science, Vol.17(3), pp.301-318, 1983.

Surface Transportation Policy Project, "Progress". Surface Transportation Policy Project (1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington DC 20036. Tel.: 202-939-3470. Email: stpp (monthly newsletter.)

Tolley, Rodney S., The Greening of Urban Transport: Planning for Walking and Cycling in Western Cities. John Wiley & Sons, 1990.

UK DOT has a bibliography, including a whole bunch of leaflets (free): Traffic Advisory Leaflets 8/97, cycling bibliography, and 3/98, traffic calming bibliography. Send an e-mail to

Urbamet Plus, Bibliographie pour le Transport Cyclists. Urbamet Plus donne les informations sur l'urbanisme, l'amþnagement et l'habitat, y compris une bibliographie concernant le transport cyclistþ. Renseignements: La Documentalistþ, Institute d'Amþnagement et d'Urbanisme, 251, rue de Vaugirard, 75740 Paris Cedex 15.

Velo-City '92, The Bicycle: Global Perspectives, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1992

Velo-City '95, Proceedings of the 8th International Bicycle Planning Conference. Basel, 1995..

Velo-City '97, Proceedings of the 10th International Bicycle Planning Conference. Barcelona, 1997.

Velo-City '99, Proceedings of the 11th International Bicycle Planning Conference. Graz and Maribor, 1999.

Vigar, Geoff, The Politics of Mobility: Transport, the Environment and Public Policy, Spon Press: London, 2001. Paperback: ISBN 0-415-25917-7, £19.99: H/back: ISBN:0-415-25916-9, £65.

Williams, John, Bicycle Advocate's Action Kit. Bicycle Federation, 1993; (brief guide full of advice and resources (includes postcards for free newsletters!) for advocates wanting to influence local transportation decisions makers.)

Wirth, C.J.  " Transportation policy in Mexico city. The politics and impacts of privatization."  Urban Affairs Review, 1997, Vol. 33, No. 2, November, pp. 155-181.

World Bank, Non-motorized Vehicles in Ten Asian Cities: Trends, Issues and Policies. The World Bank, March 1995.

Yaro, Arendt, Dodson, and Brabec. Dealing with Change in the Connecticut River Valley: A Design Manual for Conservation and Development. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 1988. (Rich with graphics, this manual explains how a community can use creative planning guidelines to accommodate growth and preserve rural landscapes.)

Young, Dwight, Alternatives to Sprawl. Brookings Institute, 1996. (Proposes alternative forms of growth promoting clustered housing and transit-oriented development.)

Bicycle / Greenway Facilities Design

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. AASHTO, 1991.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), AASHTO Maintenance Manual. AASHTO, 1987. (Includes a better discussion of trail maintenance than does the Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities.)

American Planning Association, Bicycle Facility Planning. Planning Advisory Service Report 459, American Planning Association (1313 E. 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637. Tel.: 312-955-9100), 1995.

Arizona DOT Engineering Records, Arizona Bicycle Facilities Planning & Design Guidelines, AZDOT, 1988. (Expands significantly on AASHTO Guide, adding information on bike trail railings, signal actuation, and detailed sign templates.)

Bikeways Oregon, Bicycles in Cities: The Eugene Experience. Bikeways Oregon, 1981.

Bicycle Forum, "Facility Design Liability", Bicycle Forum Tech Note F1, Adventure Cycling Association (PO Box 8308, Missoula MT 59807), 1987. (Interview with Alex Sorton)

Burden, Dan, Walkable and Bicycle Friendly Communities. Florida Dept. of Transportation, 1996.

Burrington, Stephen H., "Restoring the Rule of Law and Respect for Communities in Transportation," Environmental Law Journal, New York University, Volume 5, Number 3, 1996.

CalTrans, Bikeway Planning and Design, California DOT Highway Design Manual Fourth Edition, (online pdf, go to chapter 1000). California Department of Transportation, 1990.

Canadian Institute of Planners, Community Cycling Manual.  Canadian Institute of Planners.

CROW (Centre for Research and Contract Standardization in Civil and Traffic Engineering), Sign Up for the Bike: Design Manual For A Cycle-friendly Infrastructure. Record No. 10, CROW, (PO Box 37, NL-6710 BA EDE, Netherlands. Tel.: 31-8380-21112), 1994. (A comprehensive design manual. A part of the Dutch Bicycle Master Plan, the manual brings together years of practical experience and the latest research on cycle-friendly infrastructure. 325 pages, pictures, drawings, tables and references.)

City of Cambridge, Toward a Sustainable Future: Cambridge Growth Policy Document, City of Cambridge, 1993.

Clarke, Andy and Linda Tracy, Bicycle Safety Related Research Synthesis.  Federal Highway Administration, 1998.

Commentary on Bicycle Safety Related Research Synthesis by Howard Wachtel Commentary on Bicycle Safety Related Research Synthesis by John Allen

Colorado Department of Transportation, Draft Bikeway Design Guidelines, Colorado Department of Transportation, 1994.

Conservation Law Foundation, Road Kill: How Solo Driving Runs Down the Economy, May 1994.

Conservation Law Foundation, Take Back Your Streets: How to Protect Communities from Asphalt and Traffic. May 1995.

Conservation Law Foundation, CityRoutes, CityRights: Building Livable Neighborhoods and Environmental Justice by Fixing Transportation, June 1998.

County Surveyors Society, Traffic Calming in Practice, Landor Publishing Ltd., 1994.

Delft Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Cities Make Room for Cyclists, Delft Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft, Netherlands, August 1995.

Devon County Council Engineering & Planning, Traffic Calming Guidelines. Devon County Council, Great Britain, 1991.

Environmental Working Group, Bicycle Federation of American and Surface Transportation Policy Project, Share the Road: Let's Make American Bicycle Friendly. May 1997.

Federal Highway Administration, Bicycle Lanes versus Wide Curb Lanes: Operational and Safety Findings. Draft Study, FHWA, May 1998

Federal Highway Administration, Bicycle Safety-Related Research Synthesis. FHWA, April 1995.

Federal Highway Administration, Bicycling & Walking in the Nineties and Beyond: Applying Scandinavian Experience to America's Challenge. FHWA, November 1994.

Federal Highway Administration, The National Bicycling and Walking Study: Transportation Choices for a Changing America, Final Report plus 24 Case Studies. FHWA, 1994.

Federal Highway Administration, National Bicycling and Walking Study FHWA Case Study No. 19: Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques- Their Effects on Bicycling and Pedestrian. FHWA; 1994

Federal Highway Administration, Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles. FHWA Manual, 1993.

Federal Highway Administration, Study Tour Report for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany and the Netherlands. FHWA, October 1994.

Federal Highway Administration, Safety Effectiveness of Highway Design Features, Volume VI: Pedestrians and Bicyclists. FHWA, 1991.

Federal Highway Administration, An Investigation of the Potential for Pathways Shared by Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Federal Highway Administration. (early study showing problems of shared bike/walk paths.)

Federal Highway Administration, "Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures: Inventory of Measures and Synthesis of Experience," September 1993.

Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC 20402, 1988.

Federal Highway Administration, 1990 National Personal Transportation Survey Databook, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.

Federal Highway Administration and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Accommodation, Publication No. FHWA HI-96-028.  FHWA, May 1996.

Federal Highway Administration and Rails to Trails Conservancy, Improving Conditions for Bicycling and Walking: A Best Practices Report, January 1998.

Flink, Charles A. and Searns, Robert M., Greenways: A Guide to Planning, Design and Development. Urban Edge Inc., 1993. (A how-to for greenway planners.)

Florida Department of Transportation, Bicycle and Pedestrian Policies and Standards. Florida DOT, 1998.

Forester, John. Bicycle Transportation. MIT Press, 1994.

Hamburger, Wolfgang, et al., Residential Street Design and Traffic Control. Institute of Traffic Engineers, 1989.

Hunter, William W., A Comparative Analysis of Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes.    Federal Highway Administration, 1998.

Institute of Transportation Engineers, The Traffic Safety Tool Box: A Primer on Traffic Safety. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 1994.

Komanoff, Charles and Ketcham, Brian, Bicycle Blueprint: A Plan to Bring Bicycling Into the Mainstream in New York City. Transportation Alternatives (92 St. Marks Place, New York NY 10009. Tel: 212-465-4600.), 1993. (A 160-page document which sets forth proposals for street design, road surfaces, greenways, parks, reducing traffic, providing better bike parking, increasing bike safety, and carrying out public education. The report contains 151 specific, cost-effective recommendations. Among other things, the report calls for the creation of a 500-mile on-street bicycle lane network, along with traffic calming measures and a number of auto-free streets. The group recommends setting goals for a one- third increase in bicycling by 1995 and a further one-half increase by the year 2000.)

Lane,Brad, Cornell Cycles: A New Call for Transportation Alternatives; Cornell University (116 Maple Ave., Ithaca, NY 14850), 1992.

Little, Charles E., Greenways for America. Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr., 1990.

Massachusetts Executive Office of Transportation and Construction and Massachusetts Highway Department, Massachusetts Statewide Bicycle Transportation Plan, 1998.

Massachusetts Highway Department, Building Better Bicycling: A Manual for Improving Community Bicycling Conditions. MA Highway Department, February 1994.

Minnesota Department of Transportation, Plan B: The Comprehensive State Bicycle Plan. Minnesota DOT, 1990.  (The bicycle plan does not seem to be available.)

North Carolina Department of Transportation, North Carolina Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design Guidelines, NCDOT (Office of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, P.O. Box 25201, Raleigh, NC 27611), January 1994. ( Accompanying 22-minute video explains well-designed bicycle accommodations, and good and bad facilities.)

Northwestern University Traffic Institute, Street Rating and Evaluation Methodology, 1993.

Ohio Department of Transportation, Policy & Procedure for Bicycle Projects. ODOT Office of Bicycle/Pedestrians, 1988.

Oregon Department of Transportation, Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, Oregon DOT, 1995. Provides goals and objectives related to facility funding, planning, design, and maintenance and education, recommended practices, statewide design criteria for facilities, signing, and striping. Much expanded and improved over the years.) (available in printed or electronic format.)

Portland Office of Transportation, Bicycle Master Plan for 2030, City of Portland, OR, 2010.

Pinsof, Susan Anderson and Musser, Terri, (ed.) Bicycle Facility Planning: A Resource for Local Governments. American Planning Association, 1997.

Pucher, John, "Bicycling Boom in Germany: A Revival Engineered by Public Policy," Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 4, Fall 1997.

Pucher, John, "Urban transport in Germany: providing feasible alternatives to the car," Transport Reviews, 1998, Vol. 18, No. 4, 285-310.

Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, Converting Rails-to-Trails. Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.

Rodale Press, Inc., Pathways for People, Rodale Press, Inc., June 1992.

Ryan, Karen Lee, et al, Secrets of Successful Rail-Trails: An Acquisition and Organizing Manual for Converting Rails into Trails. Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 1993.

Ryan, Karen Lee, Trails for the Twenty-first Century. Island Press, 1993.

San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic, San Francisco Bicycle Plan, San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic, 1997.

San Luis Obispo, Bicycle Transportation Plan. City of San Luis Obispo (955 Morro St., San Luis Obispo CA 93401), 1993.

Sorton, Alex and Thomas Walsh, "Urban and Suburban Bicycle Compatibility Street Evaluation Using Bicycle Stress Level," Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1994.

Sustrans, The National Cycling Network: Guidelines and Practical Details, Issue 2.   Sustrans PO Box 21, Bristol BS99 4HA, England.)

Torbic, Darren J., The Planning and Design of Bicycle and Pedestrian Trail Crossings. unpublished (For a copy of the study, contact Darren Torbic or Dr. Walter Kilareski at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute. Tel: 814-865-1891.), 1994, (This report focuses specifically on appropriate crossing types (e.g. at-grade, grade-separated, signalized ), sight-distance requirements, proper location of crossings, design of grade-separated structures, and several additional safety measures.)

Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, An Improved Traffic Environment: A Catalogue of Ideas. Denmark Ministry of Transport, 1993.

Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, Safety of Cyclists in Urban Areas: Danish Experiences. Denmark Ministry of Transport, 1994.

Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, Cykelfelter: Sikkerhedsmæssig effekt i signalregulerede kryds ("Bicycle Markings: safety effects at signalized intersections"). Denmark Ministry of Transport, 1996.

Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, Trafiksikkerhedseffekten af cykelbaner i byområder ("The Traffic Safety Effects of Bicycle Lanes in Urban Areas."). Denmark Ministry of Transport, 1996.

Transportation Association of Canada, Guide to Bicycle Facilities. Transportation Association of Canada.

Transportation Research Board, abstracts of all the significant American papers that have been published by them are available at

Transport Research Laboratory, Urban Road Traffic Survey. (PDF)

University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, "Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Crash Types: The Early 1990s," September, 1994.

Vélo Québec, Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design Guide / Technique D'Amenagement Des Voies Cyclables. Vélo Québec (3575, St-Laurent Blvd., Suite 310, Montreal, Québec H2X 2T7). (Comprehensive guide to planning and implementation of bicycle facilities in Canada. The Handbook is designed for urban planners, engineers, landscape architects, private developers, recreational service employees and anyone who is interested in the planning, design and implementation of bikeways. Disponible en Francais.)

Ward, Paula, (ed.) Tool of the Trail. American Hiking Society (PO Box 20160, Washington, D.C. 20041-2160.) (A bibliography on planning, advocating, designing, building, maintaining and managing trails throughout America)

Wisconsin DOT, Wisconsin Bicycle Planning Guidance. Wisconsin Department of Transportation (Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinator, Div. Of Highways & Transportation Services, PO Box 7913, Madison, WI 53707-7913. Tel.: 608-267-7757). (Guidelines that can be used by Metropolitan Planning Organizations, communities, and counties as they plan and develop bicycle facilities.)

Wisconsin DOT, Wisconsin Bicycle Facility Design Handbook.  Wisconsin Department of Transportation

Exercise, Health & Environment

Andersen, Lars Bo, et al, "All-Cause Mortality Associated With Physical Activity During Leisure Time, Work, Sports and Cycling to Work," Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 160, No. 11, June 12, 2000, pp. 1621-1628. A sedentary lifestyle has a cardiovascular risk equal to smoking 20 cigarettes a day.

 Bike For Your Life, Bicycle Association & Cyclists' Public Affairs Group, London, 1995. Heart disease would decline 5-10% if one-third of short trips shifted from driving to bicycling.

"Cycling and Health Promotion," British Medical Journal, Vol. 320, 1 April 2000, p. 888. 

Easa, Said and Donald R. Samdahl, Transportation, Land Use and Air Quality: Making the Connection. Society of Civil Engineers, 1998.

Faiz, A. et al.,  Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Standards and Technologies for Controlling Emissions. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1996.

Federal Highway Administration, Benefits of Bicycling and Walking to Health, National Bicycling and Walking Study #14, USDOT, FHWA, Bicycle & Pedestrian Program, Washington DC, 1992.

Greenpeace UK, The Environmental Impact of the Car. Greenpeace UK, (Canonbury Villas, London N1 2PN, UK.) (Worldwide, a quarter of a million people die on the roads every year and ten million are injured, a scale equivalent to war. Motor vehicles are the single biggest source of atmospheric pollution.)

Greenpeace UK, Air Pollution and Child Health. Greenpeace UK, (Canonbury Villas, London N1 2PN, UK.) (Road traffic is the greatest single source of air pollution that put children at risk of developing lung disorders. The report review worldwide data.)

NARC, Manual of Regional Transportation Modeling Practice for Air Quality Analysis. National Association of Regional Councils (1700 K St. NW, Suite 1300, Washington DC 20006). (Advice for planners.)

Physical Activity: An Agenda for Action, National Forum for Coronary Heart Disease Prevention London, 1995. 

Physical Activity Task Force, More People, More Active, More Often, UK Department of Health, London, 1995.  "Regular walking and cycling are the only realistic way that the population as a whole can get the daily half hour of moderate exercise which is the minimum level needed to keep reasonably fit."

Pucher, John and Lewis Dijkstra, "Making Walking and Cycling Safer: Lessons from Europe," Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 3, Summer 2000, available at

Replogle, Michael, "Improving Transportation Modeling for Air Quality and Long-Range Planning". Environmental Defense Fund, 1993.. (A critical overview of current practices in metropolitan transportation modeling for air quality planning in the U.S., based on a decade of models in the Washington, D.C.)

Roberts, Ian, Harry Owen, Peter Lumb, Colin MacDougall, Pedalling Health-Health Benefits of a Modal Transport Shift, Bicycle Institute of South Australia, 1996.

Schmidt, Thomas, Richard Killingsworth, Lawrence Frank and Peter Engelke, How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health, Active Community Environments, Georgia Institute of Technology and Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, 2000. 

World Health Organization, Charter on Transport, Environment and Health, WHO, 1999. People who regularly commute by bicycle have a 40% reduction in mortality compared with people who do not cycle to work, which suggests that the incremental risks of bicycle transportation are far outweighed by health benefits, at least for experienced adult cyclists riding in a bicycle-friendly community.

Transport Cost Analysis

Boarnet, Marlon G., "Road Infrastructure, Economic Productivity, and the Need for Highway Finance Reform," Public Works Management & Policy, Vol. 3, No. 4, April 1999

Boarnet, Marlon G., "New Highways & Economic Productivity: Interpreting Recent Evidence," Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 11, No. 4, May 1997

Button, Kenneth John and ET. Verhoef, (ed.) Road Pricing, Traffic Congestion and the Environment and Social Feasibility. Edward Elgar Pub., 1999.

Congressional Budget Office, "Economic Effects of Federal Spending on Infrastructure and Other Investments",  June 1998.  Congressional Budget Office

Cobb, Clifford W., "The Roads Aren't Free: Estimating the Full Social Costs of Driving and  the Effects of Accurate Pricing," (pdf)

Dill, Jennifer ( analyzes the effects of urban form and roadway connectivity on non-motorized travel (, and how the provision of cycling facilities affects bicycle commuting rates ( This can help identify ways to create more walkable and bicyclable communities. This research is ongoing, so additional results will be posted in the future.

Lewis, Nigel C., Road Pricing: Theory and Practice.  Amer. Society of Civil Engineers, 1993.

Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates and Implications. (online synopsis)

Mattsson, LG. and Borge Johansson, (ed.) Road Pricing: Theory, Empirical Assessment and Policy.  Kluwer Academic Pub., 1995.

Miller, P. and J. Moffet, Price of Mobility: Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Transportation. Natural Resources Defence Council, 1993.

Johansson, Olof, David Pearce and David Maddison, Blueprint 5: True Costs of Road Transport. Island Press, 1996.

Puget Sound Regional Council, The Cost of Transportation Examining the Costs of Automobile Ownership and Operation. PSRC, 1996

Railroad Administration, Environmental Externalities and Social Costs of Transportation Systems - an Annotated Bibliography. USDOT, 1993

Rolle, Carsten, "Road Pricing: The Case For and Against," (Road Pricing online) 1994.

Thompson, Shannon, "Road Pricing Takes its Toll: Is it Time to Get Freeloaders to Pay for Not-So-Freeways?" 1994.

Bicycle Safety Education

Aultman-Hall, Lisa, and Fred L. Hall, "Ottawa-Carleton Commuter Cyclist On and Off-Road Incident Rates", Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 30, number 1, pages 29-43, 1998.  (A survey of 1604 commuters.  The collision rate was about the same on the roadway, off-road path, and on sidewalks.  See the article for all the details.)

Aultman-Hall, L., "Safety Issues concerning Sidewalk Bicycling," paper presented to the Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference, Toronto June 1997.

Aultman-Hall, L. and M.G. Kaltenecker, "Toronto Bicycle Commuter Safety Rates," Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 1998.

Aultman-Hall, L., and M.F. Adams, "Sidewalk Bicycling Safety Issues," Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 1998. (Approximately 3,000 cyclists were surveyed (about 53% in Ottawa). Cyclist accidents by facility (roads, sidewalks, and paths/trails) are analyzed and accident rates by exposure (per kilometer) on each facility type are compared. For falls and injuries, the lowest rates were recorded on road, followed by paths/trails. Sidewalk cycling had the highest rates. There was no significant differences for collisions on sidewalks in Ottawa but were higher on sidewalks and paths in Toronto. For Ottawa, both the fall rate and injury rate on sidewalks were four times higher than on roads. In Toronto, 9 and 6.4 times higher respectively.)

Baker, Susan P, et al, "Injuries to Bicyclists: A National Perspective", The Johns Hopkins Injury Prevention Center in 1993.

Cross, Kenneth and Fisher, "A study of Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Accidents: Identification of Problem Types and Countermeasure Approaches"; NHTSA; 1977.

Jerrold Kaplan's 1975 study, "Characteristics of the Regular Adult Bicycle User," Masters Thesis; U of Maryland; National Technical Information Service, Springfield VA; 1976. This showed the high accident rate on bike paths - 2.6 times that for normal streets. (online)

Moritz, William, "Adult Bicyclists in the United States - Characteristics and Riding Experience in 1996".  Transportation Research Board 77th Annual Meeting, January 11-15, 1998, Washington D.C. (online)

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, "National Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety." NHTSA, 2002 (online)

Rivera, MD, Frederick, "Training Programs For Bicycle Safety" Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, 1998 (online PDF)

Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, "Guidelines for Practical Cyclist Training Schemes" RoSPA, UK, 2000 (online PDF)

Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, "The Effectiveness of Cycle Helmets." RoSPA, UK, 2003. (online PDF)

Schimek, Paul, "The Dilemmas of Bicycle Planning", (online).   Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Department of Urban Studies and Planning.

Wachtel, Alan & Lewiston, Diana, "Risk Factors for Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Collisions at Intersections,"  ITE Journal, Vol. 64, No. 9, pages 30-35, September 1994,  (online).  The study shows the collision rate with motor vehicles from bike paths and sidewalks to be 1.8 times higher than the rate for adjacent roadways. Reprints are available from Alan Wachtel,

The conclusions are:
- Bicycles should be integrated, not separated, from other traffic.
- Cycling with traffic on roadways, whether or not a bike lane is designated, is not associated with increased accident risk.
- Intersections are the main conflict point between bicycles & motor vehicles.
- Separation of facilities leads to blind conflicts and wrong-way riding.
- There is no correlation between gender and risk.
- Cyclists riding against traffic, either on roadway or sidewalk, incur 3.6 times the risk of collision.
- Cyclists on sidewalk or bike path incur 1.8 times the risk of collision as cyclists on roadways.


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