Ethiopia: Abyssinia Adventure
Lalibela Road

Bicycle Africa / Ibike Tours
 
       
  Lalibela used to be a remote mountain side village. Due to its rock hewn churches it has been a tourist destination for decades, but prior to 2000 most of the tourist arrived by airplane,  In the first decade of the millennium the road was improved from Woldiya to Lalibela so now most motor vehicles could make the journey,  By 2017 the entire road should be paved -- it will still be remote!
Road construction, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
 
Chinese road construction camp, Gashena-Lalibela road, EthiopiaOur route to Lalibela was via the gravel road that had only been built about a decade earlier. But the Chinese flag was already flying above the road construction camp and for short stretches work had begun grading and preparing the base for the next generation asphalt road.

The gravel road was steeper in places than we had encountered on asphalt roads thus far in Ethiopia.  On downhill sections, the bicycling was slow and treacherous.  And on uphill sections, at times, we lost traction and had to push the bikes, which was slow. Even on the flat sections the scenery was so beautiful that we stop frequently to take photographs, so our forward progress was still slow.

Meeting people, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
Topography, Gashena to Lalibela, Ethiopia

The net descent should have made this a relatively easy sections. What the profile doesn't show is that the first two-thirds of the route is gravel. It is mostly descent for 20 kms, then you climb and descend by the 30 km mark, and repeat again before 40 kms.  Both the descents and ascent in this sections presented challenges.  By the time we reached the paved section, the last third, it was mostly just a long slog up a mountain side.

Gravel, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia People and traditional house (turkel), Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Turkel (traditional house), Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
Mostly the ride is about the views. Generally the area is sparsely inhabited. Besides the road and housing, some of the other signs of human life were terraced hillsides, a rural school, brightly painted churches on distant hills, irrigation ditch and a small group of people threshing their grains.
Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Cleaning grain, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Terraced fields and vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia School, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Turkel, church and vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
 
Irrigation ditch, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
People, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
 
Father and daughter, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Girl, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Girl, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Girl cooking, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia

It might be that there is only on place to buy prepared food between Gashena and Lalibela. With helpful directions from locals we found the restaurant -- it had no sign.  We ate lunch, but not without some attention from the community.  It was like bicyclists didn't stop there everyday.
 

Woman, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
Cornfield, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Donkey train cross traffic, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia

After lunch, any optimism where it looked flat was short lived.  The road was a gravel roller coaster until it crosses a tributary of the Tekeze River. These waters will eventually flow north around the Simien Mountains and reach the Nile River in Sudan, north of Khartoum.

Tributary of the Tekeze River, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia
 
  Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Vista, Gashena-Lalibela road, Ethiopia Lalibela outskirts, Ethiopia Lalibela outskirts, Ethiopia

North of the river the road is paved.  The net gain from the river to the town is about 500m, but at the end of the day it seems at least twice that high.  You can be distracted from your exhaustion by the splendid views.
 

Lower Lalibela, Ethiopia
Turkel (traditional house), Lalibela, Ethiopia
 
Turkel (traditional house), Lalibela, Ethiopia Turkel (traditional house), Lalibela, Ethiopia Turkel (traditional house), Lalibela, Ethiopia Turkel (traditional house), Lalibela, Ethiopia
The traditional house of Lalibela was a round, red rock, two-story tukul. The highest concentration of these buildings is the Hadish Adi neighborhood, in the area around the sites of the rock-hewn churches. Starting in the 1980's a "church area" was identified and non-church related activities began to be restricted.

In 1996, families were still living in the Hadish Adi tukuls (far left). Since then there was a trend by young people to choose more modern housing, but older people resisted relocation and wanted to stay in their tukul to be near their church. With the designation of the area as a World Heritage Site and the establishment of the "Ethiopia Sustainable Tourism Development Program" (ESTDP) the 96 remaining households were involuntarily relocated to new housing several kilometers away. They received larger plots of land and a building allowance, but because of limited mobility and devotion to their traditional church, this has angered a group of the people and severely degraded their overall quality of life. 

As part of the ESTDP, the local authorities plan is to preserve the vernacular houses.  Some of it is being repurposed into agency offices.
 

Older man, Lalibela, Ethiopia
Religious prossession, Lalibela, Ethiopia Religious prossession, Lalibela, Ethiopia Religious prossession, Lalibela, Ethiopia Religious prossession, Lalibela, Ethiopia Religious prossession, Lalibela, Ethiopia
Lalibela is considered the second holiest city in Ethiopia (behind Axum) and has a very devote population. On feast days people are out early and the paths and roads can be a stream of white cotton shawls -- occasionally punctuated by a multicolor umbrella.

The perpetual attraction of Lalibela are eleven rock hewn churches grouped in two clusters and the stand alone St; George Church. Steeped in myth, these unique places of worship fully functions today in the Ethiopian Orthodox tradition as they have since workers (or angels) first tediously crafted the churches between 1180 and 1220 A.D, or perhaps earlier for some.

The principle legend is that the churches of Roha sprung from the vision of King Lalibela. The local narrative is that the king traveled to Jerusalem during the 12th century and returned to create a "New Jerusalem" in Roha. While the churches do not resemble the architectural structures in Jerusalem, many were built in honor of biblical figures and others were dedicated to Ethiopian saints and prominent figures. Additionally, various landmarks around the area are named after sites in and around Israel.

Another legend says that Lalibela was the brother of an incumbent king, and he was prophesied to become king himself after a swarm of bees covered him as a child. In a fit of jealously, his brother attempted to poison Lalibela, but instead cast him into deep, three-day sleep (of visions or hallusinations). That's when an angel led him to heaven (or Jerusalem), where he saw a city of rock-hewn churches. At the same time, his brother had a dream that Jesus Christ instructed him to give up the crown to Lalibela, which he did.

As for excavating the churches, legends say it took divine intervention. Because of the massive size of some of the building, the depth of excavation, the sophistication of the engineering and the intricacy of the workmanship, this is totally believable.

Scientists have calculated that it would have taken a workforce of 40,000 man years to construct the churches. Locals claim that, toiling all the hours of daylight, the earthly workforce was then replaced by a celestial one, who toiled all the hours of darkness. In this way, the churches rose at a miraculous speed -- in a matter of days. Regardless, they are enormously impressive.
 

Priest, Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia  Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia parisioner, Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
The first church of this account is Bet Medhane-Alem (House of the Redeemer of the World). It is the largest, monolithic, rock hewn church in the world. It has some elements of a Greek Temple. The engineering is mind boggling.  The builders had to dig down on all four side, create tall, straight columns, allow for symmetrical, identical, indented window alcoves, chisel the windows and then precisely excavate the 36 pillars and eleven meter high chambers and naives inside. A theory put forward by various scholars is that Bet Medhane Alem is a copy in rock of the original Church of Our Lady of Zion at Axum, the principal shrine of Ethiopia which was destroyed in the sixteenth century by the Muslim leader Ahm­ed Gran, the Left-Handed.
Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia  Interior, Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia  Interior, Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Priest, Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Interior, Bet Medhane-Alem (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

Bet Medhane-Alem has empty graves said to represent the biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
 

Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

 

 

 Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Priest, Interior, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Parisioner, Interior, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Ceiling, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

A second, smaller, monolith church, Bet Maryam, is in the adjoining courtyard. It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and by some accounts is the oldest of Lalibela's churches. Bet Maryam is the most important and most beloved church, not only by the Lalibela clergy but also of the many pilgrims streaming into its courtyard on holy days. This popularity cannot be ascribed exclusively to the legend that King Lalibela himself favored this church above all having attended mass there daily. It has a simpler exterior, but what it lacks on the outside it makes up for with its exquisitely decorated interior.
 

Interior detail, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

 

Pillar, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

The shrouded pillars (left) reputedly inscribed with the Ten Commandments in Greek and Ge'ez, as well as the story of how the churches of Lalibela were excavated and created. The priests say that this pillar glowed brightly until the 16th century and they claim it would be too dangerous to lift the veil for others.

In a variation, the priests explain that Christ touched the pillar when appearing to King Lalibela in one of his visions. Since that time the past and the future of the world are written on it. Since man is too weak to bear the truth revealed by God, the pillar is covered.


 

Parisioner outside Bet Maryam ( rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Star of David, Interior, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Ceiling, Interior, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Cross with looped arms, Interior detail, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Moline Cross, Interior, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Double eagle, Interior detail, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

Elaborately and expertly carved into the ceiling are Stars of David, Moline Crosses, Crosses with looped arms, double headed eagles*, Lalibela crosses and a high density of geometric designs and motifs.

* The double headed eagle has a long history in the Eastern Orthodox Church.  It was used during the Byzantine Empire (11th C.) to symbolized the unity between the Byzantine Orthodox Church and State. It was used after that around the northeastern Mediterranean.  It shows up on coat of arms in eastern Europe (Russian Orthodox) in the 19th century.  Its use in Lalibela probably dates to the 12th century or earlier.
 

Interior detail, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Painting, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Painting, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Painting, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

Bet Maryam also house a number of paintings and other treasure, some of which are on public view.
 

  Priest, Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaBaptismal pool or fertility pond at Bet Maryam (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaWhile the United Nations has gazetted Lalibela as a World Heritage Site and tourist, like ourselves, come and hardly pause longer than the time it takes to compose a photo, all of the areas in and around the church still function completely as their original intended purpose. In almost every church there will be someone reading scripture, often a priest, there are several pools in the complex that are used for rituals -- depending upon the pool and the source of information believers are dipped either as a cure for infertility, if immersed on the Orthodox Christmas or for baptism -- and both inside and outside the churches people pause for lengthy periods of prayer. Parisioner praying at rock hewn church, Lalibela, Ethiopia
       
 
Door, Bet Meskel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Priest, Bet Meskel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

In the same courtyard as Bet Maryam is the much small Bet Meskel (House of the Cross), a rock-hewn cave church, carved into the wall of the depression. It contains a small chapel.

 
    Bet Danaghel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaBet Danaghel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaOn the opposite side of Bet Maryam is Bet Danaghel (House of the Virgin Martyrs). According to a legend recorded in the Ethiopian Book of Martyrs, the chapel was contracted in honor of 50 Christian maiden nuns murdered on the orders of the 4th-century Roman emperor Julian in Edessa (modern-day Turkey). Many of its features – the cruciformInterior, Bet Meskel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia pillars and bracket capitals – are typical architectural features of the churches  
 
Walkway between rock hewn churches, Lalibela, EthiopiaThe passages between the courtyards are also carved in the rock and within the complex there are are a number of lengthy tunnels connecting courtyards and churches.  
  Bet Mikael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Interior, Bet Mikael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Mikael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Pillar, Bet Mikael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Interior, Bet Mikael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

At the west end of the northwest cluster are the twin churches of Bet Mikael (a.k.a. Bet Debre Sina) and Bet Golgotha. They share an entrance through Bet Mikeal, but have different natures.

Bet Mikael (above) has high ceilings and some decorate carving.
 

Interior, Bet Mikael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
    Bet Golgotha (below) is more intimate and has the images of seven life-sized saints carved into its walls.  It is the one church in Lalibela that women are not allowed to enter. It is said that King Lalibela is buried here. The Selassie Chapel, which lies within Bet Golgotha, is considered the holiest place in Lalibela.  
 
Bet Golgotha (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Golgotha (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Golgotha (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Priest, Bet Golgotha (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
 
 
    Tomb of Adam, Lalibela, EthiopiaThe hollowed out block of stone in the center of the image (left) is called the Tomb of Adam. The opening is part of the passage from Bet Mikael out of the complex. I am still searching for clarity on way it is called the Tomb of Adam.

Following the passage will take you southwest to the iconic Church of St. George, Bet Giyorgis. It is rare that a set of images of Lalibela doesn't contain a picture of Bet Giyorgis. It is probably the most photographed church in Lalibela, Ethiopia, and on the continent of Africa.

 
       
    Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Religious prossession,St. George's Church, Lalibela, Ethiopia Approaching Bet Giyorgis, a monolith rock hewn church, you first see a Greek cross chiseled into the hill top.  As you draw nearer it becomes apparent that it is the roof of a towering building.  And as more of the building comes into view you see the details of the church.  It is often possible to identify the location of Bet Giyorgis because petitioners stand at the edge of the chasm to pray. Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
  Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia  Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
  Entrance to Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

From every angle Bet Giyorgis is impressive.  It also seems to be one of the most popular churches in Lalibela.  This may be due to the presences it commands.

The story goes that Girorgis was so offened that none of Lalibela's churches was dedicated to him that he personally visited the King to set him straight.  Lalibela responded by promising he would build the finest of all his churches for Giyorgis.  So enthusiastic was the saint to see the results that he rode his horse right over the wall into the entrance tunnel.  The holes in the stone tunnel walls are the hoof printsBet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia of St George's horse.

It is the custom for believers to kiss the wall as they enter the tunnel.

In the enclosure there is a pond that is said to have wholly water.

Entrance Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
  Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia The faithful come to pray at Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia The faithful pray at Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
 
    
  Musicians, Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Musicians, Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaThe public chapel is in Bet Giyorgis is not big to begin with and it is often crowded with the faithful so there is an anteroom carved into the wall of the enclosure where the musician chant and drum their praises. The ritual can last more than an hour.
 
Musicians, Bet Giyorgis - St. George (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
       
  Mote outside Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia The second cluster of churches, to the southeast, is full of curiosities.

In an unusual consensus, many past scholars and local tradition agree that many churches date from around King Lalibela’s reign in the 12th or 13th century.

But more recent scholarship date some of the structures to the 7th and 8th century.  This puts them in the period of King Kaleb (Axumat). Which might help to explain some of the Axumite features of some of the buildings.

Stairway to heaven, Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
  Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaPainting, Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaBet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaBet Gabriel-Rafael is a tall, two story building with no entrance on the first floor, and any rooms at that level are only rumored.  The access to the second floor is of modern construction.  British archeologist David Phillipson concludes that both Painting, Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, EthiopiaBet Gabriel-Rafael and the nearby Bet Mercurios were excavated as the core of a fortified palatial complex during the politically unstable 7th and 8th centuries, when the Axumite Empire was in the process of disintegrating. The orientation and floor plan of the interior doesn't suggest that it ever was intended to be a church. It is small and plain, the rooms are irregularly shaped and the floors are much more uneven than most of those in the northwest complex.  It has a few relatively new looking painting.
 
Priest, Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
  Tree outside Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Door to tunnel near Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Door to tunnel near Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Lehem, the Bakery of the Eucharistic Bread, Lalibela, Ethiopia Walkway between rock hewn churches, Lalibela, Ethiopia

Bet Lehem can be reach by a passageway 50 meters long that starts at the right-hand aisle of Bet Emanuel, and passes Bet Metcurios and the courtyard of Abba Libanos. The shrine has been shaped into a cone by the central trench; the tunnel still winds up in spiral form within the hill and ends in a low, round room. A tree-trunk in the room serves as a central pillar.

It has to be admitted that the original function of this shrine is not known. As a matter of fact, it has three names: "Hermit's Cell of King Lalibela''', "Bet Lehem, the Bakery of the Eucharistic Bread" and "Stable of King Lalibela's Horse".

 
  tunnel near Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
tunnel near Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia tunnel near Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia tunnel near Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Tunnel near Bet Gabriel-Rafael (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
 
 
 
St Mercurios slaying King Oleonus, Bet Mercurios, Lalibela, EthiopiaBet Mercurios is a cave church.  It is believed to have originally been used for secular purposes, and like Bet Gabriel-Rafael, may date back to the 7th century. The church features a multi-frame painting of the Passions of Christ (left), a faded frieze of three wise men in the company of other, or a group of saints (center-left) that is dated to the 15th century, a painting features St Mercurios slaying the King Oleonus (Emperor Julian the Apostate, 361 to 363, the last non-Christian emperor of the Roman Empire. He has a complex legacy: He showed support to Jews in Judea, and was noted as a military commander, theosophist, social reformer, and man of letters. In Ethiopia he is associated with the martyring of Christians) (center-right), and a painting of Ethiopian Saint Gebre Menfes Kidus (aka Saint Abbo) with Lions and Leopards (right) (like St Francis, he is know as a friend of animals).
 
Painting of Saint Gebre Menfes Kidus (Saint Abbo) with Lions and Leopards, Bet Mercurios (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
  Bet Emanuel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

Bet Emanuel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia

 Interior, Bet Emanuel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Painting, Bet Emanuel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Interior, Bet Emanuel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Bet Emanuel (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Bet Emanuel is a 12m-high, the only monolith the southeast complex and the most architecturally sophisticated church in Lalibela.  One explanation is that was the private church of the royal family.
 
 
  Bet Abba Libanos (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Interior, Bet Abba Libanos (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Priest, Bet Abba Libanos (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Interior, Bet Abba Libanos (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia Drum, Bet Abba Libanos (rock hewn church), Lalibela, Ethiopia
Bet Abba Libanos is built into a cave.  According to legend it was built overnight by Lalibela's wife Meskel Kebre, assisted by a group of angels.
 
 

  Painter of religious art, Lalibela, Ethiopia
Traditional weaver, Lalibela, Ethiopia Souvenir shop, Lalibela, EthiopiaThe authorities of Lalibela has done a lot to reduce the hassle-factor of visiting Lalibela pre-2000. On my most recent visit we were able to walk to site entrance without being solicited about a guide, beggars and street kids, and there was no aggressive commercialism.  At the entrance official guide were available. The street kids came out in the evening making leisurely walks a bit problematic.

As you exit the church sites there are some artist stalls and on the main street there are some souvenir shops that you can visit at your leisure.

Puppet at souvenir shop, Lalibela, Ethiopia
Religious prossession, Lalibela, Ethiopia
   

 
     
       
 

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Ethiopia Bicycle Tour: Lalibela