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Photo essay: Yeongneung

   

Points of Interest: Yeongneung Royal Tombs of King Sejong and King Hyopong

  King Sejong statue, King Sejong's tomb, Yeoju, Korea King Sejong statue, King Sejong's tomb, Yeoju, KoreaKing Sejong (1397-1450) ascended the throne in 1418 at age 21.  He is widely regarded as the most enlightened king in Korean history.  Sejong is best known for his initiative to create Hanguel, the Korean alphabet.  He also invented such scientific devices as a rain gauge, a celestial globe and sundial, promoted the development of classical court music, and improved metal type printing techniques.
  Jaesil complex, King Sejong's tomb Jaesil complex, King Sejong's tombThe Jaesil is where the officiators stayed to prepare for the memorial rites. It is located outside the Hongsalmun (red gate).  The ritual complex is composed of several buildings, specifically; Anhyangcheong (Hall of Blessed Comfort), Jegigo (Storage Room for Ritual Vessels), Jaesil (Shrine House), and Haengnangchae (Caretaker's House).
  Gate into the King Sejong tomb area Gate into the King Sejong tomb areaGate into the King Sejong tomb area.
  Geumcheon (forbidden river), Geumcheongyo (forbidden river bridge) and Hongsalmun (red arrow gate), King Sejong's tomb Hongsalmun (red arrow gate), King Sejong's tomb In front of the Joseon royal tombs is a eogu (royal channel or stream) or Geumcheon (forbidden river) which is cross by a Geumcheongyo (forbidden river bridge).  This bridge is typically located in front of the Hongsalmun (red arrow gate), Traditionally the Geumcheongyo Bridge was built to mark a sacred zone on the border between the inner and the outer world where the King's spirit resides.  The location of the bridge also represents an auspicious site as defined by the pungsu (feng shui), which is characterized by gentle hills at the back and a waterway with low-lying fields at the front.  According to a related pjungsu principle, water prevents fierce land energy flows from the mountains from making further progress. The Hongsalmun is a memorial gate standing at the entrance to the tomb sanctuary. It is built with two red posts and an arrow-like spike on top. The arrow symbolizes the integrity of the law and the sovereignty of the state.  The Hongsalmun is a gate that indicates the beginning of the sacred area.
  Jeongjagak, King Sejong's tombJeongjagak is at the base of the hill, in front of the tomb. It is so called because it is in the shape of the Chinese letter jeong, similar to a "T". Memorial services for the King are held here, with food offerings placed on the altar table in the jeongjapak..
  Yagam, King Sejong's tomb The Yagam is a square stone box where, after the completion of the memorial rites, the invocation paper was burned while the food offerings were being removed.  It is always located to the rear west of the Jeongjagak.
  Subokbang, King Sejong's tomb To the right of the Jeongjagak is the Subokbang, the storehouse for ritual vessels and also the living quarters for a grave keeper, or subok, a government slave who kept the tomb complex clean.
The tomb is on a gentle hills with a waterway and low-lying fields at the front. It is surround with stone figures of civil officials, stone animals, stone lanterns and zodiac figures.
  King Sejong tomb King Sejong tomb stone lantern King Sejong tomb stone figure of civil official King Sejong tomb stone figure of civil official
    Also on the site is an exhibit of replicas of King Sejong Academic Academies scientific achievements.
  The Hansang (celestial globe) is an astronomical instrument designed to observe a location of constellations via a spherical surface where the constellations are marked with equatorial and ecliptic coordinates. The axis by which the globe rotates is designed to correspond to the earth's axis of rotation. The celestial globe was designed to rotate once a day automatically via the pressure of water flowing from above.  With this instrument officials were able to measure time during the night and the year's seasonal change.  The first one was installed in 1437.
  The Ganui (armillary sphere) is Joseon's main astronomical instrument.  It measures the time day and night.  It was inspired by Yuan astronomer Guo Shoujing, who invented it in 1276 to observe the sun, moon, five planets and other stars.  In 1432 the Joseon made a wooden armillary sphere and used it to calculate the latitude of Seoul. This was followed by the production of a bronze Ganui.
  This reproduction of a Joseon Cheonsangyeolchabunyajido (astronomical chart) features constellation according to the twelve divisions of the ecliptics and the areas on earth corresponding to them. The inscription on the front face of a black stone was made in 1395, and that on the rear in 1433. The chart consists of a record of the sun and moon placed on top, 1,467 stars inscribed in a circle located in the middle, and the chart's title, historical background, the producer's name and the date of production on the lower part.
  The Ilseongjeongsiui (sun-star armillary clock) was made in 1437, by a group of astronomers led by Yi Cheon and Jang Yeong-sil, as part of an effort to calculate time via combining the functions of a sundial and star clock.  The instrument consists of four rings and a metal axis which were made according to the latitude of Seoul calculated at the time.
  This Soganui (small armillary sphere) is an astronomical instrument used to observe the location of heavenly bodies.  Three astronomers, Ye Cheon, Jeong Cho and Jeong Inji made two small armillary sphere in 1434.  Smaller in size than Ganui, the small armillary sphere was more portable and marked a simpler structure consisting of three rings, an alidade and a stand.  It was a multi-functional instrument that could also be used as an equatorial coordinate system and horizontal coordinate system for the calculation of the location, height and direction of the sun, moon, planets and other stars. It is known as the world's only instrument of its kind.
  Cheonpyeong Ilgu (equilibrium sundial) is one of several sundials made in 1437. A cord is fastened to connect the 'dragon pillar' with a nail in the south, perpendicularly crossing the middle of the dial, installed to correspond to the equatorial plane of the sphere. You can read the time by where the cords shadow falls on the dial. The dial has two faces, one for summer and one for winter. The reproduction is seven time larger than the original.
  This Hyeonju Ilgu (dangling-bead sundial) was created in 1437. It is designed to measure time via the marks on the dial indicated by the shadow of a cord fastened tightly in the direction of the earth's axis. The dial has two faces, one for summer and one for winter. They are used from equinox to equinox.  The reproduction is seven time larger than the original. The originals were fairly small and used as portable instruments.
  Jeongnam Ilgu (self-striking water clock) I am still working on the cogent parts of the description for this instrument. If you would like to try your hand at it here is the site description, "This Wind Flag Pedestal sundial made in 1437, is designed to measure time by deciding due south even without a magnetic needle.  The axis of Syuhwan ("ring of four displacements") linking south and north posts is made to correspond to the sphere's north pole and have the sundial level off with a weight appended to the end of the axis. The Jipyeonghwan ("horizontal ring") is marked with calibrations representing 24 directions and 24 solar terms while the Sayuhwan has notch marks designed to help measure the 24 solar terms and time of the day from sunrise to sunset.  You can read time from a sundial marked with lines representing times and solar terms through a square hole when a sunray reaches on the dial through the alidade's southern hole as you move the Sayuhwan and the alidade from side to side and from south to north, respectively." ref 9315
  The Honcheonui (celestial globe) is an astronomical instrument used to measure the location of the sun, moon and five planets. This reproduction is 2.5 times larger than a more advanced Honcheon Sigye, that incorporated clockworks, made in 1669.
  The Jeokdoui (equatorial telescope) was made by an astronomer named Nam Byeong-cheol, who combined the Ganui and Honcheonui, two of the dynasty's greatest astronomical instruments. The Jeokdoui is regarded as the easiest to use and most efficient. To observe celestial bodies with this instrument, one needs to decide the direction of the target by arranging the Sayuhwan (ring of four displacements) and read the related marks through the two holes of the Gyuhyeong (alidade).
  The Gyupyo (gnomon) is an instrument designed to calculate the days of a year (i.e. 365 1/4 days) and the 24 solar terms.  Consisting of an erected rod and a calibrated ruler laid horizontally, the instrument helped to know both the winter and summer solstices, the spring and autumn equinoxes and 20 solar terms arranged by a gap of 15 days between each term.
  The Angbu Ilgu (upturned cauldron sundial) has been the most widely used sundial in Korea since the invention in 1437.  The gnomon is designed to indicate 24 solar terms from the winter solstice to the summer solstice and the time.
  The Ilgudae (sundial pedestal), as named, is a pedestal with a sundial on it. These were installed in public in Seoul to help people know the time. The hour markers on the sundial are the twelve zodiac animals so that people, who were largely illiterate, could easily tell time.
  This is an example of the movable type developed during the reign of King Sejong.  It was centuries before Guttenberg would do the same in Europe.
  The Punggidae (wind flag pedestal) is an instrument with a flag to measure the direction and speed of the wind. It was part of an effort to get information on rain and wind that would be helpful in increasing agricultural development.
  The Jagyeongnu (self-striking water clock) was developed by a group of court researchers led by Jang Yeong-sil, in 1434. This water clock is designed to tell the time automatically.  The mechanism consists of three jars that send water to a pair of cylindrical receptacles.  Floating devices rise according to the water flow.  As they rise they indicate the time by strike a bell, drum and gong.
  Supyo (water gauge) were installed on the major waterways of the capital to measure river levels around 1441 and 1442. The development of water gauges and rain gauges was the result of an effort to control floods via systematic research of the natural environment.  The first water gauge was a simple wooden post with notch marks to show water levels.  The wooden post was later replaced with a stone post.
  This Cheugugi (rain gauge), invented in 1441, by a group of court researchers led by Jang Yeong-sil, is known as the world's first rain gauge. Records say that King Sejong, who had found the traditional method of gauging rain was inaccurate, encouraged his engineers to develop a new, more scientific means of gauging rain fall.  Records also show that the iron rain gauge used in the capital were extensively copied in the provinces, where the gauges were made of ceramic.
    Royal tomb of King Hyojong (1619-1659) and Queen. As a prince the king had been humiliated by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty when he was held hostage. As king he enforced land tax reform and encouraged the use of currency as a means of exchange, which contributed to the development of commerce and industry -- activities generally frowned upon by the Neo-Confucians. He also built fortresses and increased the training of soldiers to address threats from the Qing.  King Hyojong died before he could carry out his plan to take revenge on the Qing. The site was repaired and landscaped in 1977.
  Jaesil complex, King Hyojang's tomb Jaesil complex, King Hyojang's tomb Jaesil complex, King Hyojang's tomb Jaesil complex, King Hyojang's tombThe Jaesil complex is where the officiators stayed to prepare for the memorial rites and for the storage of sacrificial vessels. It is located outside the Hongsalmun (red gate).  The ritual complex is composed of several buildings, specifically; Anhyangcheong (Hall of Blessed Comfort), Jegigo (Storage Room for Ritual Vessels), Jaesil (Shrine House), and Haengnangchae (Caretaker's House).
  Pond at King Hyojang's tomb Pond at King Hyojang's tomb
  Hongsalmun and Jeongjagak, Hyojang's tomb The Hongsalmun is a memorial gate standing at the entrance to the tomb sanctuary. It is built with two red posts and an arrow-like spike on top. The arrow symbolizes the integrity of the law and the sovereignty of the state.  The Hongsalmun is a gate that indicates the beginning of the sacred area.
  Jeongjagak, Hyojong's tomb The Jeongjagak is where memorial services are held here, with food offerings placed on the altar table.  People will also come to the Jeongjapak to pay their respect to the sovereign by making three half bows of respect.
  Commemorative stele, Hyojong's tomg The inscription on this stele explains that King Hyojong's tomb was originally located in the Dongguneung tomb compound in Yangju but was moved here in 1673 and that his wife, Queen Inseon, is buried in a separate grave in front of his tomb. 

It is believed that the stele and its shelter were erected at the time the tomb was move here.

  King Hyojang's tomb King Hyojang's tomb, stone civil officials King Hyojang's tomb King Hyojang's tomb, stone civil officialsThe tomb is on a gentle hills with a waterway and low-lying fields at the front. It is surround with stone figures of civil officials, stone animals, stone lanterns and zodiac figures.
     
 

Yeosu Chungju

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