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Photo essay: Geum River Trail -
Gunsan, Ganggyeong, Buyeo, Gongju, Sejong, Daejeon

Geum River Trail (200km, 120mi) Mostly riverside and dike-top trail, with the occasional headland.
Points of Interest:  Gunsan, Ganggyeong, Buyeo, Gongju, Sejong, Daejeon,

     
Bicyclist with big load, Haeman Gil, Gunsan, Korea Bike Share Program, Gunsan, KoreaHaemangul Tunnel, Haeman Gil, Gunsan, KoreaGunsan improves as you distance yourself from the industrial area and near the banks of the Geumgang (river). Bicyclists are a bit more prevalent, include some working bikes with big loads. To avoid the major roads you can sneak into the downtown through the Haemangul Tunnel (right).  And if bike share programs reflect local values, Gunsan gets a thumbs up for the Gunsan Bike Share Program (far right).
Old Janggi 18 Bank, Gunsan, Korea

Japanese era building, Gunsan, KoreaAfter the Gunsan port was turned into an international trading center in 1899, the city turned into a key shipping terminal for the export of Korean rice to Japan. In turn, a number of Japanese settled in the area and built buildings not typical of the community. To this day notable Japanese and Europe influenced bank-type buildings, a residential / commercial district and a Buddhist Temple with distinctive architecture, remain from this era.

Old Chosun Bank, Gunsan, Korea Sculture; student taking a break from farming to study, GunsanThe old Chosun Bank, Gunsan Branch (left), was built in 1923, during the Japanese occupation. It was originally a branch of Hanguk eunhaeng, central bank of Daehan Imperial, but the Japanese changed the name to what it is remembered by today.  During the colonial rule the bank served as a direct financial arm of the Japanese Governor-General of Korea.  This building was designed by Germans, who had been held as hostages by the Japanese during World War I, and was constructed by the Chinese.

The near by sculpture is a boy who is taking a break from work to study.

Jinpo Marine Park, Gunsan, Korea Jinpo Marine Park, Gunsan, KoreaAlong the riverfront, the Jinpo Marine Park displays retired military equipment of the Korea armed forces including army vehicles, naval vessels and aircraft.

This is to commemorate the Battle of Jinpo.  During the Goryeo Dynasty, August 1380, a large private fleet consisting of around 500 ships attached Jinpo and pillaged the surrounding area.  According to Goryeosa (The History of Goryeo), the entire area was covered with bodies of the slaughtered Koreans. The wako (pirates) carted off bags of rice to their boats, reportedly dropping so much that they left a trail 30cm (a foot) thick.  The naval command of Goryeo, headed by Na Se, Sim Deok-bu and Choe Mu-seon, defeated the pirates in Jinpo, using cannons developed by Choe Mu-seon.  It was the first sea battle in history in which cannons were used.

Artistic railing, Geumgang, Gunsan, Korea Construction of Gunjang Bridge, Geumgang, Gunsan, Korea (2013)Gunsan is set on the banks of the Geumgang (river). With that it is not a surprise that the fencing along the dock is specially designed incorporating gulls.  With not much more patients I could have gotten a picture of the railing with said bird providing a fly-by.  After a couple of missed fly-bys I moved on.

One meaning of Geum is gold, but so far I haven't found a reference that connects the two.

It also wasn't a surprise that there was a new bridge in the works to help people cross the river. 

Geum estuary bridge, Geumgang, Gunsan, Korea The Geumgang (river) Bicycle Path begins at the Geumgang weir across the Geumgang Estuary.  The north side of the river is in Chungcheongnam-do (province) and the south side of the river is in Jeollabuk-do.  There are trails along both sides of the river up to the Baekje-ro bridge (Rd 723).

Bird blinds, Geumgang (river) Bicycle Path, Gunsan, KoreaBird blinds, Geumgang (river) Bicycle Path, Gunsan, KoreaThe area and estuary are known for birds -- specifically migratory birds. They are celebrated annually with the Gunsan International Migratory Bird Festival in November. To help the birders, bird blinds and observations building have been constructed along the trail.

Bird art, rest area, Geumgang Bicycle Trail, Gunsan, Korea Duck art, rest area, Geumgang Bicycle Trail, Gunsan, KoreaBird art, rest area, Geumgang Bicycle Trail, Gunsan, KoreaThis reach of the river has the Hwayang Wetland, Sinseong-ri reeds and Napo Sipjattuel Migratory Bird Observatory, so it is not surprising that the theme at one of the rest area is birds and ducks. It is festooned with a variety of avian inspired art.
Passage during freezing prohibited, Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea trail markings, Geumgang Bicycle Path, KoreaThe prudent advice on the signs says "Passage during freezing prohibited."

The photo to the right shows some trail markings on the Geumgang Bicycle Path. The graphics identity a pedestrian lane and bike lanes for each directions. Text alerts users to an upcoming bridge and road.

 

The path on the north bank is a mix of packed dirt and asphalt.
 Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea
 Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea Geumgang Bicycle Path, KoreaThe path on the south bank is asphalt and cement.

 

 Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea  Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea
 Geumgang Bicycle Path, Korea Jungnim Seowon, Hwangsan-ri, Ganggyeong-eup, Nonsan-si, KoreaAfter bicycling along the river for a while route diversions away from the river are a welcome relief and often bring you back in touch with the culture and people.

Jungnim Seowon (right), was named ‘Hwangsanseowon’ when it was built, but later its name was changed to Jungnim Seowon.  It was abandoned in 1871 by the Seowoncheolpyeryeong (a royal order abolishing seowons) and then restored in 1965.

Historic buildings of Ganggyeong, KoreaHistoric warehouse in Ganggyeong, KoreaLeaving the trail completely and ducking into the town of Ganggyeong is like stepping halfway back to the 1930s. It offers a bit of the old and a bit of the new, though the pace of change seems to be accelerating. There is a billboard in town with pictures of older buildings.  They are getting harder and harder to find. The building to the right is posted but it is all but ready to collapse from it own weight.

Phone booths (2014), Ganggyeong, Korea
In this digital, wireless county, telephone booths are rare.
Until recently Ganggyeong, hasn’t changed a whole lot since the Korean War:  Ganggyeong today is just a small, town of 14,000 people. But this wasn’t always the case. During the Joseon era, it had one of Korea’s three biggest monthly markets, along with Pyongyang and Daegu. It was also one of Korea’s two largest ports, the other one being Wonsan (on the east coast of what is now North Korea). Being at the confluence of two tributaries that form the Geum River, Ganggyeong was a particular good spot to deal in both sea products and agricultural goods from the surrounding plains. In fact, some 80 percent of the sea products brought into Gunsan were marketed in Ganggyeong. The elevation of the river is one meter and the town is about 40 km (25 miles) up river.

Ganggyeong, KoreaThe Japan traders began coming to Ganggyeong in 1899, when a Japanese merchant opened up a seafood wholesale business there. In 1905, a Japanese elementary school opened up. In 1902, the town became the first in province to get a post office. The Japanese built a courthouse, town office, commercial high school and other public buildings. The town got electricity and a water supply-sewage system in the 1920s, as well as the first theater in the Honam region.

Church, Ganggyeong, Korea Also of interest is that unlike many other Korean towns, where the Japanese tended to live apart from their colonial subjects, in Ganggyeong, the Japanese and Koreans lived and mixed together. Even the Chinese, of whom there were apparently many during the colonial period, didn’t reside in a separate Chinatown.

Modern Korean national development would not be kind to the city, however. The opening of the Seoul-Busan railroad, in 1906, diminished the roll the Gongju-Cheongju area in the towns trade activity. The opening of the Gunsan and Seoul-Mokpo lines, to the west, put another nail in the town’s coffin—seafood from Gunsan and agricultural goods from the surrounding areas now bypassed Ganggyeong’s markets. Nevertheless, the city retained its importance as a market through the 1930s. The next blow came with the Korean War, when much of the city’s market facilities were destroyed.

Main street market, Ganggyeong, Korea Preparations for the Fermented Fish Festival, Ganggyeong, KoreaBut it may be too soon to write off Ganggyeong.  Market days fill the streets and they seem to have found a new niche. Now the town is a small regional market specializing in jeosgal, or salted / femented seafood. There must be a dozen large jeosgal stores in town (below) -- they seemed to be selling marinated meat as well. Because there are so many here and so few in other towns it is a phenomena. As one might expect Ganggyeong hosts an annual Fermented Fish Festival.

Preparations for the Fermented Fish Festival, Ganggyeong, KoreaThe stores are distinctive from convenience stores and supermarkets for there very conforming displays of rows of deep covered vats of food items, with little else in the way of associated items and accessories.  The stores are bright and clean, and look prosperous, but there weren't a lot of customers during our visits.

Jeosgal store, Ganggyeong, Korea Jeosgal store, Ganggyeong, Korea Jeosgal store, Ganggyeong, Korea Jeosgal store, Ganggyeong, Korea
Nine Story Stone Pagoda of Mireuksa, Korea Outside of Ganggyeong, towards Iksan, is Mireuk-sa (temple). This was the largest temple of Baekje.

According to the Samguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms), Seodong (King Mu's childhood name) and his queen saw a vision of the Maitreya Buddha triad emerging from a pond at the foot of Yonghwasan (mountain). At the request of the queen, the pond was drained and Mireuksa was established, in 602. According to a gold plate found inside the Stone Pagoda of Mireuksa, the establishment of Mireuksa was from the urging of the daughter of the queen, in 639AD.

The temple expanded during the Unified Silla period and is believed to have continued to operate as a temple until around 1600, the mid-Joseon period.

The layout of the temple was unique with three temple units in a row, each having one pagoda and one main prayer hall. The temples represent Maitreya, the Buddha of the future, who attained enlightenment and preached the Buddhist teachings three times under the bodhi tree to save sattva (living beings).

In addition to its unique layout, Mireuksa is noted for the quality of its nine-story stone pagoda (the oldest in Korea, one of two stone pagodas remaining from the period, and the largest of these), the structure of the platform of the main halls, the shape of the stone lanterns, and the craftsmanship of the sarira reliquary. This advanced cultural achievement carried on in its influence on the formation of the culture of Silla and Japan.

Yonan Yi Clan's archives, Ganggyeong, KoreaNorth to Mireuksa is the Yonan Yi Clan's archives. Most of the records and other document are about Yi Sung-won (1428-91), a high official during the reign of King Seongjong (including justice and defense minister), his grandfather Yi Paek-kyom, his father Yi Po-chong, his grandson Yi Kye-ryun and some clan affairs.
Mascots of Buyeo, Korea
Mascots of Buyeo
The next town along the river is Buyeo (Sabi), whose glory days were 1400 years ago. The record shows that In 538, King Seong moved the capital of Baekje from Ungjin (Gongju) to Sabi, and changed the name to Nambuyeo (South Buyeo). Prior to this, archaeological evidence shows that Sabi had been playing a role supporting the capital Ungjin.  To protect Sabi, two fortresses were built; one on a mountain (Busosanseong) and the other on flatland (Naseong).  The mountain fortress contained mountain peaks and valleys and offered a safe haven for the government in case of emergency, and a natural garden for the royal palace in times of peace. Naseong had the function of defining the inner from the outer capital. The fortress had northern and eastern walls and southern and western moats to protect it.
Buyeo National Museum, Korea Pottery, Buyeo National Museum, KoreaBuyeo National Museum celebrates the Mahan and Baekje Kingdoms. During the period when Sabi was the capital Baekje culture experience its final flourish.  The Museum has a collection of about 15,000 artifacts from the Chungnam Province.  About 1,000 pieces are on permanent display for public viewing.
Buyeo National Museum, Korea

 

The Mahan Kingdom existed from the 3rd century BC until the 4th century AD.  In Hahan, the “pottery with clay stripes” culture was introduced in about the 3rd century BC. Its development brought considerable changes to the local community. In the early 2nd century BC, the iron culture of the Han Dynasty, of China, spread to Mahan, laying the basis for the formation of 54 mini kingdoms in Mahan through a comprehensive reorganization of the local society. Iron weapons and farming toolsMahan bird-shape pottery, Buyeo National Museum, Korea developed at that time included ring-pommel swords, double-blade swords, spears, arrowheads, sickles, chisels, axes and hand blades.

Mahan bird-shape pottery is assumed to have been used in various rites.  It is usually found along the west coast and the lower reaches of the Geumgang.  Birds were believed to be the vehicles that linked people with heaven and earth.  Thus, the bird-shape objects are assumed to have been used in rites in which prayers for the fulfillment of their wishes were made.

Pottery, Buyeo National Museum, Korea Pottery, Buyeo National Museum, KoreaPottery, Buyeo National Museum, KoreaGlazed Pottery, Buyeo National Museum, KoreaBaekje was the first culture to produce glazed pottery by applying glaze to earthenware.  This epochal technical breakthrough effectively ended the preexisting earthenware culture that dominated the Korean Peninsula for thousands of years and inaugurated a new age for ceramics. A black color was produced by rubbed an item with a paste of dark minerals, such as black lead or manganese, before being fired. This style of vessel often features a long-necked jar with a round body.
Hoya, Buyeo National Museum, Korea

A hoya was a chamber pot used exclusively by males. It was shaped like a tiger with its front legs set upright, its hind legs resting on the ground, its face turned left and its mouth agape. It is supposed to have been modeled on those made in the Southern Dynasties of China.

Pottery and pottery stand, Buyeo National Museum, Korea Pottery and pottery stand, Buyeo National Museum, KoreaThe Baekje produced a variety of other pottery with creative elements: Pottery, Buyeo National Museum, Korea Oblong Pottery, Buyeo National Museum, Korea

Pottery and pottery stands (left)

Oblong pots (right)

Cups (far right)

Bronze Dagger, Buyeo National Museum, Korea Bronze Dagger, Buyeo National Museum, KoreaA Bronze Dagger Culture, unique to the Korean Peninsula, emerged in about the 4th century BC as a combination and extension of the Liaoning-style Bronze Dagger Culture and the bronze culture of more northern countries. The Liaoning bronze dagger culture first appeared in the Liaoning area of north-eastern China in the beginning of the 10th century BC.  Liaoning bronzes contain a higher percentage of zinc than those of the neighboring bronze cultures. Asian scholar Lee Chung-kyu has concluded that the culture is properly divided into five phases: Phases I and II typified by violin-shaped daggers, Phases IV and V by slender daggers, and Phase III by the transition between the two. Of these, remains from Phases I, II and III can be found in some amounts in both the Korean peninsula and northeast China, but remains from Phases IV and V are found almost exclusively in Korea
Baekje Gilt-Bronze Incense Burner, Buyeo National Museum, Korea The Baekje Gilt-Bronze Incense Burner is a National Treasure. It features a dragon-shaped pedestal, lotus shaped bowl for burning incense, and a lid covered by jagged mountains forms, pierced with 12 holes for the incense to waft through.  Perched atop the lid is a bonghwang, a legendary auspiciousRoof tiles, Buyeo National Museum, Korea bird. Few Asian works compare with it in terms of design and expressiveness.

During the Baekje Dynasty, lotus-flower patterns were particularly popular for many types of artistic works. In addition to the lotus incorporated into the incense burner, exquisite lotus flower patterns, characterized by smooth curves and large size were often carved on tiles or bricks

Bust of King, Buyeo National Museum, Korea

According to the Baekje Bongi (Chapter of Royal biographies of Baekje) in Samguk Sagi (The History of the Three Kingdoms), Baekje “kings wore a headwear made of black silk and decorated with gold flowers while the officials in ranks of over the sixth grade Nasol were ornamented with silver flowers.” Now widely represented by silver ornaments, the new court uniform system spread to provincial administrations according to the development of the system of administrative divisions of provinces (hang), counties (gun), towns (seong).

Rock carve Buddha, Buyeo National Museum, Korea Rock-carved Buddhist statues were first made in India in the third to second century BC.  They were introduced to Korea in the Three Kingdom Period via China.  Representative rock surface-carved Buddhist statues of Baekje included Rock-carved Buddhist Triad, dated to the second half of the 6th century to the first half of the 7th century. The archaic smile is widely known as ‘the smile of Baekje’ and is one of the pronounced characteristics of Buddhist statues of Baekje. Rock-carved Buddhist statues include those sculptured in intaglio or in relief on the surface of rocks and cliffs and those on recessed surface and on the walls of the stone grottos. Of all the Three Kingdoms, late Baekje Buddhist were stylistically the most realistic and technically sophisticated.
jewelry, Buyeo National Museum, Korea Clay figurines, Buyeo National Museum, Korea Jewelry, Buyeo National Museum, Korea bronze bell, Buyeo National Museum, Korea Weaving spindles, Buyeo National Museum, Korea
Buyeo Bike Share Program, Korea Bad bicycle path, Buyeo, KoreaA great way to survey all of the historic and cultural sites in Buyeo is by bicycle.  If you didn't arrive with you own bike you can rent one from the Buyeo bicycle share program.

Generally it is pretty easy to get around because average traffic volumes are low.  For the few busy streets there are often parallel routes through the adjacent neighborhoods. Where bicycle facilities have been provided they are often dubious.  The photo to the right shows the bicycle logo stenciled and the path being narrowed about 40% by a tree and newspaper box and this is near a low profile bollard strategically place to grab a pedal at the intersection.

Statue of General Gyebaek, Buyeo, Korea Statue of General Gyebaek, Buyeo, KoreaIn 660, Baekje was invaded by a force of 50,000 from Silla, supported by 144,000 Tang (Chinese) soldiers. General Gyebaek, with only 5,000 troops under his command, met them in the battlefield of Hwangsanbeol. Before departing to the battlefield, Gyebaek reportedly killed his wife and children to boost the fallen morale and patriotism of his army, and to prevent the thought of them influencing his actions or to cause him to falter in battle.

His forces won four initial battles, causing severe casualties to Silla forces. However, in the end, exhausted and surrounded, Gyebaek's army would be outnumbered and overwhelmed. Baekje's forces would all be annihilated in battle, alongside with their commander, General Gyebaek.

Lotus flower, Seodong Park / Gungnamji (pond), Buyeo, Korea

Seodong Park / Gungnamji (pond), Buyeo, Korea

Seodong Park / Gungnamji (pond), Buyeo, Korea

Seodong Park / Gungnamji (pond), Buyeo, KoreaSeodong Park / Gungnamji (pond) is the first recorded instance of Koreans constructing an artificial pond with an island in the middle.  It was dug during the reign of King Mu. In the summer it is full of lotus blossom.  Each section has a different color. The ponds are surrounded by willow trees. The name of the park comes from the legend “Seodong-yo” or "Seo Dong's Song."  The story goes…

There was an ambitious young man called Jang.  He was a talented person who had the makings of a great leader but he made a living by selling horses (or gathering yams) as a youth. The commoners simply called him Seo Dong. After hearing about the remarkable beauty of Princess Seon-hwa, who was the third daughter of King Jin-pyeong of the Silla Kingdom, he shaves his hair to disguise himself as a Buddhist Monk and slips into Silla. He befriends the children in the capital of Silla by giving away horses (or yams) and teaches them a simple song, “The Ballard of Seo Dong.”.

Word of the scandalous song soon reaches the royal palace. The song implicated the princess so she was banished from the Kingdom. Before leaving the queen gave the princess a bar of gold. During the princess’s journey, Seo Dong appeared and persuaded her to follow him. Though the princess had no idea who the man was or where he was from, she thought it would be nice to have a friend on her long trip and followed him. The princess takes a liking to the man because he proves to be trustworthy and they eventually got married. Later, she learns that his name is Seo Dong and realizes how a simple song brought them together.  He later became the 30th King of Baekje and was called King Mu.

In 2005-06, the legend was turned into a television drama which was stretched out over 56 episodes.

Pagoda, Jeongnimsaji, Buyeo, Korea Jeongnimsaji (temple) is in the center of Buyeo. It was built in the mid 6th century, around the time Baekje transferred its capital to Sabi. The temple's Baekje name is not known. It is called Jeongnimsaji based on the writing on a piece of tile made in 1028 (Goryeo). The overall layout of the temple grounds is typical of Baekje temples: There is a south-north center line made up of Jungmun (middle gate), the five story stone pagoda, Geumdang (main hall) and a lecture hall. A corridor surrounded them.  The corridor was laid out as a trapezoid. To the south of the middle gate there used to be two square lotus ponds and the site of the southern gate. 
Buddha, Jeongnimsaji, Buyeo, KoreaA stone statue of the seated Buddha was discovered at the site of the lecture hall.  It was made during  the Goryeo period, when the temple was rebuilt.  This suggests that the lecture hall, made during the Beakje period, was used as a main hall during the Goryeo period. Only the pagoda, Buddha and lotus ponds remain of the original complex.

Only the pedestal and the body of the Buddha remain because the original sitting stone Buddha was burned and heavily damaged.  Judging from the narrow shoulders and the hands placed around the chest this seems to be Vairocana.  Its head and hat were restored at a later time. The pedestal has been fairly well preserved and shows refined and balanced craftsmanship.

Pagoda, Jeongnimsaji, Buyeo, Korea

Pagoda, Jeongnimsaji, Buyeo, Korea

 

The Baekje people chose stone pagoda to make up for the weak points of wood construction. The five-story pagoda is an example of the refined Baekje stone architecture.  Though the pagoda is patterned after its wooden cousins, it displays a refined and creative form instead of being a simple imitation.

Each pedestal is fixed by a pillar stone. Each corner of the pagoda body in each story holds a pillar stone using the beheullim technique, where a pillar's upper and lower extremities are narrow while its middle is wider. Thin and wide roof stones covering the edges of the eaves display what is described as "lofty elegance."

After Su Tin-fang, a Tang General, destroyed the Baekje Kingdom, he inscribed his exploits on the surface of the first-story body of the Pagoda.  This inscription is regarded as very valuable historic information because it records the circumstances of the day.

The Jeongnim Pagoda is one of the two remaining stone pagodas from the Baekje period. (The other is at Mireuksa Temple site, in Iksan, and is considered a finer structure.)

In addition to the archeological layer of Buddhist temple, investigations have identified multiple older cultural layers; including Bronze Age layer containing plain-coarse pottery shards, a Baekje layer prior to the temple and a Goryeo layer.

The Jeongnim Temple site is now registered as a National Treasure.

The adjacent site museum has good exhibits on; the advancement of Buddhism across Asia, the development of Baekje Buddhism, the design of temples, aesthetics of Baekje temples, and Jeongnimsaji.

Gate, Busosanseong (mountain fortress), Buyeo, Korea Gate, Busosanseong (mountain fortress), Buyeo, KoreaIt is believed that Busosanseong (mountain fortress), with Sabi, the capital of Baekje, in the center, was built in 538. The Baengmagang (river) forms a natural protective barrier on the north side.  In the mountain fortress there are many historic sites: Gunchangji – the military depot that stored food, four gates in the east, west, south and north directions, Yeongilru Pavilion on which the kings of Baekje and nobilities came to make annual plans while watching the sun rise, Sajaru Pavilion that was built on Songwoldae, the site to watch the moon submerging in the Baengmagang as winding up the national affairs, Suhyeolbyeongyeongji – a resting hut for Baekje military, Banwolru Pavilion considered as a lookout point, Nakhwaam where many Baekje women died for the fidelity as the Baekje kingdom collapsed, Goransa that was famous for Goran plant and Goran mineral water and built for cherishing the spirits of Baekje women in the Goryeo dynasty, Samchungsa that enshrined the portaits and altars of three Baekje loyal subjects, Seongchung, Heungsu and Gyebaek, and Seoboksaji Temple site, the temple of the Baekje era on the west side of the hill.
Green Food Zone sign, Buyeo, Korea Bicyclist, Buyeo, KoreaIf the sign wasn't bilingual I would have ignored it, but having peaked my curiosity I took a picture. I believe the translation is "Beyond this Point, Children, Food Safety Zone, Thank you."

On the topic of healthy living, we passed this local bicyclist -- always good to see.

 

Statue of Seongwang (King Seong), Buyeo, Korea Statue of Seongwang (King Seong), Buyeo, KoreaSeongwang (King Seong) (r. 523–554) was the 26th king of Baekje. He was a son of Muryeong of Baekje and is best known for making Buddhism the state religion, moving the national capital to Sabi (present-day Buyeo), and reclaiming the center of the Korean Peninsula. His demise eventually came at the hands of an ally who betrayed him. The name Seong translates as 'The Holy.'
Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea Geumgang Bicycle Path, Buyeo, Korea

Gudeurae Sculpture Park is adjacent to the river. It contains 59 sculptures: Thirty of the works of art were crafted by sculptors residing in Gudeurae who are known for skills that have been handed down from artists dating back to the Baekje Period. The other 29 pieces are from Korean and overseas artists who participated in the International Modern Sculpture Symposium in 1999.

Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea Gudeurae Sculpture Park, Buyeo, Korea
Not meaning to dismiss real life in the present, nestled under a bridge, amidst the pillars, is a rowing club. It looks like the equipment is being stored outdoors and unfenced. This is not something that would be successful in most of the world.  If it was in the USA, there is at least US$100,000 worth of boats in the picture.
 

West Coast Daejeon

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